Since ancient times Peniche lived intimately linked to the sea. Initially it was an island but then with the wind and tidal current become a peninsula.
Its strategic location, the richness of their land and its coast was where occupided by several civilizations since prehistoric times, more precisely at he Middle Paleolithic.

With the Roman occupation the economy of the population was mainly based on agriculture and fishing confirm the importance at the time of the canning industry, an activity that continues today.
The development continued during the Middle Ages thanks to the importance acquired by its port and the wealth generated by fishing.
From the sixteenth century, with the union of Peniche in the country, the population begins to grow significantly. In the year 1609 is raised to the category of town and seat of the Municipality, thus achieving the independence of Atouguia da Baleia.During the sixteenth and seventeenth century the prosperity continues with the construction of a major defense system which protected the population from pirate attacks, consolidating the economic and social structure of the population by producing wealth which follows an enviable agriculture and fishing.
In the twentieth century the increasing fish production due to introduction of a new technique, the purse seine fishery, which will give rise to a variety of fishing-related industry.
Currently the population of Peniche encountered a major boost to the local economy through tourism.